It is all about social norms: Gender differences in commuting times in Brazilian cities


  • Deborah Maria da Silva Seabra FEAUSP
  • Carlos Roberto Azzoni Universidade de São Paulo (USP)



Tempo de deselocamento, Hipótese da Responsabilidade Doméstica, Discriminação de gênero, Normas sociais


Based on a sample of 34,834 heterosexual couples living in Brazilian metropolitan regions, we verify econometrically the existence of a gender differential in the time spent commuting to work and the role of the division of domestic tasks. We use PNAD data for the period 2011-2015 and estimate Multivariate Ordered Probit models to calculate the probability of an individual choosing a determined commuting time interval. The results indicate that women exhibit shorter commuting times than men. This does not change when we add variables representing socioeconomic characteristics, relative income (typically lower for women), different types of work, age, and the property of the residence. We include the amount of time dedicated to household chores, the division of household responsibilities, and the contribution to the couple’s income (bargaining power). The results indicate that the difference in commuting times between men and women has little to do with gender per se but is strongly related to the social roles represented in the family. The shares of chores and income are always important in defining the commuting time of individuals. Simultaneous equation estimates for the two members of the couples indicate that the effect of the share of household chores on commuting time is more intense for men than for women, which is probably the result of the normative asymmetric division of gender in the responsibility for the home.


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Biografia do Autor

Deborah Maria da Silva Seabra, FEAUSP

Economista e Mestre em Economia, UFPE; Doutora em Economia, FEAUSP




Como Citar

SEABRA, D. M. da S. .; AZZONI, C. R. It is all about social norms: Gender differences in commuting times in Brazilian cities. Revista Brasileira de Estudos Regionais e Urbanos, [S. l.], v. 17, n. 2, p. 155–187, 2024. DOI: 10.54766/rberu.v18i2.1018. Disponível em: Acesso em: 14 jun. 2024.
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