Dispersão concentrada do emprego intra-urbano: modelos teóricos e abordagens empíricas

Main Article Content

Rodger Barros Antunes Campos
Carlos Roberto Azzoni

Resumo

A dispersão concentrada do emprego tem implicação de política pública relevante. O surgimento de novos centros de emprego afeta os vetores de preços de equilíbrio, tornando o preço da terra mais elevado, salários tendo de ser compensados por tal elevação, ou elevação da demanda por um sistema de transporte capaz de reunir mão de obra mais barata em lugares mais distantes e, consequentemente, reduzindo o spatial mismatch entre oferta e demanda por mão de obra. Em face da importância do tema e da ausência de um estudo sistematizado, este artigo discute a relevância da análise econômica do espraiamento do emprego dentro das cidades e sistematiza as metodologias empíricas de identificação de centralidades e subcentralidades. Para tanto, vale-se de uma abordagem metodológica denominada foward chaining, que constitui da identificação dos documentos a partir do grupo selecionado previamente. Os resultados apontam para a evolução dos modelos teóricos ao microfundamentar os modelos desenvolvidos pela Escola Alemã e, especialmente, ao abordar a existência de múltiplos centros. No âmbito da abordagem empírica, os métodos de identificação estão se concentrando em estimações econométricas e estratégias de identificação que considerem a dinâmica do mercado de trabalho intertemporalmente têm sido incorporadas.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Article Details

Como Citar
CAMPOS, R. B. A.; AZZONI, C. R. Dispersão concentrada do emprego intra-urbano: modelos teóricos e abordagens empíricas. Revista Brasileira de Estudos Regionais e Urbanos, v. 13, n. 4, p. 606-627, 6 out. 2020.
Seção
Artigos
Biografia do Autor

Rodger Barros Antunes Campos, Pesquisador Associado do Núcleo de Economia Regional e Urbana (NEREUS-USP), Economista sênior no GrupoZap

Pesquisador Associado do Núcleo de Economia Regional e Urbana (NEREUS-USP), Economista sênior no GrupoZap

Carlos Roberto Azzoni, Universidade de São Paulo

Professor do Departamento de Economia da Universidade de São Paulo

Referências

AGUILERA, A.; MIGNOT, D. Urban sprawl, polycentrism and commuting. A comparison of seven French urban areas. Urban Public Economics Review, v. 1, p. 93-111, 2004.
AHLFELDT, G. M. et al. The economics of density: evidence from the Berlin wall. Econometrica, v. 83, n. 6, p. 2127-2189, 2016.
ALONSO, W. Location and land use. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964.
ANAS, A.; ARNOTT, R.; SMALL, K. A. Urban spatial structure. Journal of Economic Literature, v. 36, n. 3, p. 1426-1464, 1998.
ANAS, A.; KIM, I. General equilibrium models of polycentric land use with endogenous congestion and job agglomeration. Journal of Urban Economics, v. 28, p. 318-325, 1996.
ANDERSON, N.; BOGART, W. The structure of sprawl: Identifying and characterizing employment centers in polycentric metropolitan areas. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, v. 60, p. 147–169, 2001.
AZZONI, C. R. Teoria da localização: uma análise crítica. São Paulo. IPE/USP, 200p. Série Estudos Econômicos, v. 19, 1982.
BECKMANN, M. J. Spatial equilibrium in the housing market. Journal of Urban Economics, v. 1, p. 99-107, 1974.
BENDER, B.; HWANG, H. Hedonic housing price indices and secondary employment centers. Journal of Urban Economics, v. l, n. 17, p. 90-107, 1985.
BERLIANT, M.; KONISHI, H. The endogenous foundations of a city: population agglomeration and marketplaces in a location specific production economy. Regional Science and Urban Economics, v. 30, n. 3, p. 289-324, 2000.
BEYERS, W. Cyberspace or human space: wither cities in the age of telecommunications? In Aoyama, Y.; Wheeler, J.; Barney, W. (Eds.), Cities in the telecommunications age: the fracturing of geographies. New York: Routledge, 161-180, 2000.
BOGART, W. T.; FERRY, W. C. Employment centres in Greater Cleveland: evidence of evolution in a formerly monocentric city. Urban Studies, v. 36, n. 12, p. 2099-2110, 1999.
BAUMONT, C. e BOURDON, F. Centres secondaires et recomposition économique des espace urbain, le casda communauté de l’aglomération dijonnaise (1990; 1999). LATEC Working Paper 4, Universidade de Bougogne, Dijon, 2002.
BAUMONT, C., ERTUR, C. e GALLO, J. L. Spatial analysis of employment and population density: the case of the agglomeration of Dijon, 1999. Geographical Analysis, v. 36, n. 2, 2004.
BOURNE, L.S. Are new urban forms emerging? Empirical tests for Canadian urban areas. Canadian Geographer, n. 33, p. 312-328, 1989.
BURNS, M.C.; BOIX, M.; ROCA, J. Contrasting indications of polycentrism within Spain’s metropolitan urban regions. Paper for the Eighth European Estate Society Conference, Alicante, June 26-29, 2001.
CAMPOS, R. B. A. (2018) Subcentralidades e prêmio salarial intra-urbano na região metropolitana de São Paulo, Tese de doutorado, Departamento de Economia, Universidade de São Paulo http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/12/12140/tde-26112018-122557/
CAMPOS, R. B. A.; CHAGAS, A. S. Identificação e caracterização das subcentralidades de emprego no Município de São Paulo. In: 45º ENCONTRO NACIONAL DE ECONOMIA, Natal, 2017. Anais... Natal: ANPEC, 2017.
CASTELLS, M.; HALL, P.; HALL, P. G. Technopoles of the world: the making of twenty-first-century industrial complexes. Routledge, 1994.
CERVERO R., America's Suburban Centers: The Land Use-Transportation Link: Unwin Hyman, Winchester, MA. 1989.
CERVERO, R.; WU, K-L. Polycentrism, commuting, and residential location in the San Francisco Bay area. Environment and Planning A, v. 29, p. 865-886, 1997.
CHRISTALLER, W. Central places in southern Germany. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1966.
CLARK, W.A.V.; KUIJPERS-LINDE, M. Commuting in restructuring urban regions. Urban Studies, v. 31, p. 465-483, 1994.
COFFEY, W. J. e SHEARMUR, R. G. The identification of employment centers in Canadian metropolitan areas: the example of Montreal, 1996. The Canadian Geographer, v. 45, nº 3, p. 371-386, 2001.
COMBES, P.-P.; DURANTON, G.; GOBILLON, L. Spatial wage disparities: Sorting matters! Journal of Urban Economics, v. 63, n. 2, p. 723-742, 2008.
COMBES, P.P.; GOBILLON, L. The empirics of agglomeration economies. In: Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, v. 5A, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1st Edition, pp. 247-348, 2015.
CRAIG, S. G., NG, P. T. Using quantile smoothing splines to identify employment subcentres ina a multicentric urban area. Journal of Urban Economics, v. 49, 2001.
DIXIT, A. K.; STIGLITZ, J. E. Monopolistic competition and optimum product diversity. American Economic Review, v. 67, n. 3, p. 297-308, 1976.
DURANTON, G.; PUGA, D. Micro-foundations of urban agglomeration economies. In: Handbook of regional and urban economics. Elsevier, p. 2063-2117, 2004.
EPPLI, M.; BENJAMIN, J. The evolution of shopping center research: a review and analysis. American Real State Society, v. 1994, n. 1, p. 5-32, 1994.
FERREIRA, C. M. C. Espaço, regiões e economia regional. In: HADDAD, P. R. (Org.). Economia regional: teorias e métodos de análise. Fortaleza: Banco do Nordeste do Brasil, 1989.
FUJITA, M. A monopolistic competition model of spatial agglomeration: differentiated products approach. Regional Science and Urban Economics, v. 18, p. 87-124, 1988.
FUJITA, M.; KRUGMAN, P.; VENABLES, A. The spatial economy: cities, regions, and international trade. Cambridge: Massachussetts Institute of Technology
(MIT Press), 1999.
FUJITA, M.; OGAWA, H. Multiple equilibria and structural transition of non-monocentric urban configurations. Regional Science and Urban Economics, v. 12, n. 2, p. 161-191, 1982.
GARREAU, J. Edge city: life on the new frontier. New York: Doubleday, 1991.
GETIS, A. Second-order analysis of point patterns: the case of Chicago as a multi-center urban region. Professional Geographer, v. 35, n. 1, p. 73-80, 1983.
GIULIANO, G.; SMALL, K. A. Subcenters in the Los Angeles region. Regional Science and Urban Economics, v. 21, p. 163-182, 1991.
GIULIANO; G. et al. Not all sprawl: evolution of employment concentrations in Los Angeles, 1980-2000. Working Paper 2005-1002, Lusk Center for Real Estate, University of Southern California. 2005.
GLAESER, E. O triunfo da cidade. 2ª ed. São Paulo: BEI Comunicação, 2016.
GORDON, P.; RICHARDSON, H.; WONG, H. The distribution of population and employment in a polycentric city: the case of Los Angeles. Environment and Planning A, v. 18, p. 161-173, 1986.
GOTTLIEB, P. Residential amenities, firm location and economic development. Urban Studies, v. 32, n. 9, p. 1413-1436, 1995.
GRAHAM, S.; MARVIN, S. Telecommunications and the city: electronic spaces, urban places. London: Routledge, 1996.
GREENE, D. Recent trends in urban spatial structure. Growth and Change, v. 10, p. 29-40, 1980.
GRIFFITH, D. A. Evaluation the transformation from a monocentric to a polycentric city. Professional Geographer, v. 33, n. 2, p. 198-196, 1981.
GUILLAIN, R.; GALLO, J. BOITEUX-ORAIN, C. Changes in spatial and sectoral patterns of employment in Ile-de-France, 1978-97. Urban Studies, v. 43, n. 11, p. 2017-2098, 2006.
HALSTEAD, J.M.; DELLER, S.C. Public infrastructure in economic development and growth: evidence from rural manufacturers. Journal of the Community Development Society, v. 28, p. 97-116, 1997.
HARTWICK, P.; HARTWICK, J. M. Efficient resource allocation in a multinucleated city with intermediate goods. Quarterly Journal of Economics, v. 88, p. 340-352, 1974.
HEIKKILA, E.; GORDON, P.; KIM, J. I. What happened to the CBD-distance gradient?: land rents in a polycentric city. Environment and Planning A, v. 21, p. 221-232, 1989.
HELSLEY, R. W.; SULLIVAN, A. M. Urban subcenter formation. Regional Science and Urban Economics, v. 21, p. 255-275, 1991.
HENDERSON, J. V.; MITRA, A. The new urban landscape: developers and edge cities. Regional Science and Urban Economics, v. 26, n. 6, p. 613-643, 1996.
HENDERSON, J. V.; SLADE, E. Development games in non-monocentric cities. Journal of Urban Economics, v. 34, p. 207-230, 1993.
HOTCHKISS, D.; WHITE, M. A simulation model of a decentralized metropolitan area with two-worker, ‘traditional’ and female-headed household. Journal of Urban Economics, n. 34, p. 159-185, 1993.
HOTELLING, H. Stability in Competition, Economic Journal, v. 39, n. 153, p. 41–57, 1929.
ISARD, W. Location in a space economy. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technolody Press, 1956.
KANE, K.; HIPP, J. R.; KIM, J. H. Los Angeles employment concentration in the 21st century. Urban Studies, p. 1-26, 2016.
KLOOSTERMAN, R.; MUSTERD, S. Polycentric urban region: as a research concept. Urban Studies, v. 38, n. 4, p. 619-629, 2001.
KNEIB, E. C. Subcentros urbanos: contribuição conceitual e metodológica à sua definição e identificação para planejamento de transportes (Tese de doutorado). Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, 2008.
KRUGMAN, P. Increasing return and economic geography. Journal of Political Economy, n. 99, p. 448-499, 1991.
LÓPEZ, M. A. G.; MUÑIZ, I. Employment descentralisation: polycentric compaction or sprawl? the case of the barcelona metropolitan region 1986-1996’, Document de Treball, Facultat de Ciències Econòmiques i Empresarials, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 2005.
LOPEZ, M. G. Estructura espacial del empleo y economias de aglomeración: el caso de la indústria em la región metropolitana de Barcelona. Arquitectura, Ciudad y Entorno, v. 2, n. 4, p. 519-553, 2007.
LÖSCH, A. The Economics of Location. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1954.
LUCAS, R. E.; ROSSI-HANSBERG, E. On the internal structure of cities. Econometrica, v. 70, n. 4, p. 1445-1476, 2002.
MARSHALL, A. Principles of economics. London: Macmillan, 1890.
MCDONALD, J. F. The identification of urban employment subcenters. Journal of Urban Economics, v. 21, pp. 242-258, 1987.
MCDONALD, J. F.; MCMILLEN, D. P. Employment subcenters and land values in a polycentric urban area: the case of Chicago. Environment and Planning A, v. 22, p. 1561-1574, 1990.
MCDONALD, J. F.; PRATHER, P. J. Suburban employment centres: the case of Chicago. Urban Studies, v. 31, n. 2, p. 201-218, 1994.
MCMILLEN, D.; D. P.; MCDONALD, J. F. A nonparametric analysis of employment density in a polycentric city. Journal of Regional Science, v. 37, n. 4, p. 591-612, 1997.
MCMILLEN, D. P.; MCDONALD, J.F. Suburban subcenters and employment density in metropolitan Chicago. Journal of Urban Economics, v. 43, p. 157–180, 1998.
MCMILLEN, D. P. Nonparametric employment subcenter identification. Journal of Urban Economics, v. 50, p. 448-473, 2001a.
MCMILLEN, D. P. Polycentric urban structure: the case of Milwaukee. Economic Perspectives. Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, 2001b.
McMILLEN, D. P. Identifying sub-centres using contiguity matrices. Urban Studies, v. 40, p. 57-69, 2003.
McMILLEN, D. P. e SMITH, S. C. The number of subcenters in large urban areas. Journal of Urban Economics, v. 53, nº 3, p. 321-338, 2003.
MILLS, E. S. An aggregative model of resource allocation in a metropolitan area. American Economic Review, v. 57, n. 2, p. 197-210, 1967.
______. Studies in the structure of the urban economy. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1972.
MODARRES, A. Policentricity and transit sevice. Transportation Research Part A, v. 37, p. 841-864, 2003.
MUÑIZ; I.; GALINDO, A.; GARCÍA, M. A. És Barcelona uma ciudad polcéntrica? Document de Treball No. 0390, Departament d’Economia Aplicada, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 2003.
MUTH, R. F. Cities and housing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969.
MUTH, R. F. Numerical Solution of Urban Land-Use Models. Journal of Urban Economics, v. 2, p. 307–332, 1975.
OGAWA, H.; FUJITA, M. Equilibrium land use patterns in a non-monocentric city. Regional Science and Urban Economics, v. 20, n. 4, p. 455-475, 1980.
PAN; Q; MA, L. Employment subcenter identification: a GIS-based method. Texas Southern University. Science and Urban Economics, v. 21, n. 2, p. 63-82, 2005.
PAPAGEORGIOU, G. J. Rent distribution models within a multicentral framework. Environment and Planning A, v. 3, p. 267-282, 1971.
PAPAGEORGIOU, Yorgos; SMITH, Terrence R. Agglomeration as local instability of spatially uniform steady-states. Econometrica, v.51, n. 4, p. 1109-1119, 1983.
RAMOS, F. R. Análise espacial de estruturas intra-urbanas: o caso de São Paulo. Dissertação de Mestrado em sensoriamento Remoto. INPE, São Jose dos Campos, SP. 2004.
ROMANOS, M. C. Household location in a linear multi-center metropolitan area. Regional Science and Urban Economics, v. 7, p. 233-250, 1979.
ROSENTHAL, S.; STRANGE, W. Evidence on the nature and sources of agglomeration economies. In: HENDERSON, J.V.; THISSE, J.F. (Eds.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics 4. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 2119-2171, 2004.
ROSS, S; YINGER, J. Comparative static analisis of open urban models with a full labor market and suburban employment. Regional Science and Urban Economics, n. 25, p. 575-605, 1995.
SASAKI, K.; MUN, S. A dynamic analysis of a multiple-center formation in a city. Journal of Urban Economics, v. 40, n. 3, p. 257-278, 1996.
SHEAMUR, R.; COFFEY, W. J. A tale of four cities: intrametropolitan employment distribution in Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, and Ottawa-Hull, 1981-1996. Enviroment and Planning, v. 34, p. 575-598, 2002.
SIQUEIRA, L. P. R. Proposta metodológica para a identificação de subcentros urbanos: estudo de caso na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. Economia Aplicada, v. 18, n. 1, p. 139-165, 2014.
SIVITANIDOU, R.; WHEATON, W.C. Wage and rent capitalization in the commercial real estate market. Journal of Urban Economics, n. 31, p. 206-229, 1992.
SMALL, K. A,; SONG, S. Population and employment densities: structure and change. Journal of Urban Economics, v. 36, p. 292-313, 1994.
SMOLKA, M. O. O espaço do espaço na teoria econômica. Literatura Econômica, Rio de Janeiro, IPEA, v. 5, n. 6, p. 705-28, 1983.
SOLOW, R. Congestion costs and the use of land for streets. Bell Journal, v. 4, n. 2, p. 602-618, 1973.
SULLIVAN, A. A general equilibrium model with agglomerative economies and decentralized employment. Journal of Urban Economics, v. 20, p. 55-74, 1986.
THÜNEN, V. Von Thunen’s isolated state. Oxford, 1966.
WHEATON, W. C. A comparative static analysis of urban spatial structure. Journal of Economic Theory, v. 9, p. 223-237, 1974.
______. Commuting, congestion, and employment dispersal in cities with mixed land use. Journal of Urban Economics, v. 55, n. 3, p.417-438, 2004.
______. Commuting and congestion: a simulation model of a decentralized metropolitan area. Journal of the American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, n. 18, p. 335-368, 1990.
______. Firm suburbanization and urban subcenters. Journal of Urban Economics, v. 3, n. 4, p. 323-343, 1976.
______. Location choice behavior and commuting behavior in cities with decentralized employment. Journal of Urban Economics, v. 24, p. 129-152, 1988.
______. Urban areas with decentralized employment: Theory and empirical work. In Chesire, P.; Mills E. S. (Eds.) Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, v. 3 Applied Urban Economics, North-Holland, pp. 1375-1412, 1999.
WEBER, A. Theory of the location of industries. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1929 [Tradução do livro de 1909 por Carl j. Friedrich].
WIEAND, K. An extension of the monocentric urban spatial equilibrium model to a multicenter setting: The case of the two center city. Journal of Urban Economics, v. 21, p. 259-271, 1987.
WREDE, M. A continuos spatial choice logit model of polycentric city. Regional Science and Urban Economics, v. 53, p. 68-73, 2015.
YINGER, J. Urban models with more than one employment center. Journal of Urban Economics, v. 31, n. 2, p. 181-205, 1992.
ZHANG, Y.; KOMEI, S. Effects of subcenter formation on urban spatial structure. Regional Science and Urban Economics, v. 27, n. 3, p. 297- 324, 1997.
______. Spatial structure in an open city with a subcenter. Annals of Regional Science, v. 34, n. 1, p. 37-53, 2000.